Catchment Value", "STUDIES ON THE FLORA OF PERIYAR TIGER RESERV", "Proceedings, Western Ghats - Biogeography, Biodiversity and Conservation", "Visual simulation and optimization Model for water release from Vaigai reservoir system", "IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION ORIGINAL SUIT NO. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. Sprawling over an area of 925sq.km, Periyar National Park; also called Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, is nestled amidst the fascinating Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the great Western Ghats. The town of Kodungallur lying close to the Periyar river is famous for the Cheraman Juma Masjid. Where is the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary? Periyar National Park in Kerala is a protected wildlife reserve. Mullaperiyar dam was one of the earliest instances of inter-basin transfers in the peninsular India. The basin is ecologically sensitive. It lies in the south of Western Ghats along the border with state of Tamil Nadu in India. [22], To the west of the Lower Periyar Valleys are the midlands, which are characterized by undulating topography with small hills separated by valleys. The high Rajamala-Anamudi-Umayamala part of the main Anamalai ridge forms its northern boundary. This topographically complex segment of the Western Ghats extends from near Neriamangalam in the southwest to Panamkutty in the southeast along the Periyar River and continues north up to the watershed divide between the Periyar and the Chalakudy Basins. [42], The Periyar is an 8th order stream with considerable development of tributary network. Originally the hunting grounds of the Maharajah of Travancore, Periyar Tiger Reserve was declared a wildlife reserve (previously called the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary) in 1933. [61], Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, one of the important bird sanctuaries of India, is an evergreen low-land forest located between the branches of Periyar River. Clearly haven’t learnt from the disaster they had in 2009. Since the commissioning of the Idukki project in 1976, tail-race water (between 19.83-78.5 m3/s) has been diverted from the Idukki reservoir through the Moolamattom power station into the Thodupuzha tributary of the Muvattupuzha river. the source of Periyar River is a narrow valley extending south of Kumily. The Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara Island, and finally drains into the Vembanad backwaters at Varapuzha. [49] The most industrialized zone of Periyar lies in this part of the basin between Angamaly and Cochin, with over 50 large and medium scale industries. [4][10], The Periyar basin spreads over an area of 5,398 square kilometres (2,084 sq mi), most of it in central Kerala. Pollution of the river and surrounding wetlands has almost wiped out traditional occupations, including fishing and farming. It lies between latitudes 9°15’30"N and 10°21’00"N and longitudes 76°08’38"E and 77°24’32"E. The river drains parts of Idukki, Ernakulam and Thrissur districts in Kerala[43] and Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. This ridge separates the basin of Pamba from Periyar. [45], Anamudi, at 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) the highest peak in South India, is the highest point in the basin. This tract is almost entirely forested and the forests extend northwest between Periyar and Chalakudy rivers along the plains almost up to Kalady. [22] South of Vagamon, the tributaries of Meenachil, Manimala and Pamba have eroded away extensive areas of the Periyar basin between Ayyappankovil and Vallakkadavu. [22], The High Range Plateau has been almost totally transformed by tea plantations and hydroelectric dams. Its eastern boundary is a northwest to southeast ridge separating the Idukki reservoir from the Kallar/Perinjankutty tributary of Periyar which drains the main Cardamom Hills. [81], Waterway map The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is located far down the river from the Mullaperiyar Dam site. [64] The temple festival is conducted every year on Sivarathri day of the Kumbham month of Malayalam calendar. No tigers of course, we were on a walking tour and they are notoriously hard to find, even much, Hotels near Green Park Ayurvedic & Spices Plantation, Hotels near Deepa World Spice and Ayurvedic Garden, Hotels near Periyar Spice & Ayurvedic Garden, Kadathanadan Kalari & Navarasa Kathakali, Zipline & Aerial Adventure Parks in Thekkady, Points of Interest & Landmarks in Thekkady, Green Park Ayurvedic & Spices Plantation: Tickets & Tours‎, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary: Tickets & Tours‎, Deepa World Spice and Ayurvedic Garden: Tickets & Tours‎, Angadipetty -Kerala Ayurveda Museum: Tickets & Tours‎, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary Tours and Tickets, From snorkel to surfing—no expertise necessary, All ashore for easy trips straight from port, Flexible itineraries and personal experiences. [46] The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is situated here. [5] The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala. This section of the Cardamom Hills extends deep into but is clearly separated from the Pandalam Hills. Visiting Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary proves to … The National Park is situated right at the heart of Pandalam Hills and Cardamom Hills of Southern Western Ghats. Periyar (meaning: big river) is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. Efforts have been made to prevent soil erosion on the banks of river periyar at Aluva Sivarathri manappuram (sand bank) through afforestation programs headed by renowned environmentalist, Prof. S. Sitaraman, since 1992. The Mangalapuzha branch joins Chalakudy River and empties into the Lakshadweep Sea at Munambam, and the Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara island, going through the Udhyogamandal area and finally draining into the Cochin backwater system (part of Vembanad Lake) at Varappuzha. Here the High Wavies branch off towards north-west into Tamil Nadu, with some peaks reaching elevations of over 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Our lovely local guide showed us Gaur, Malabar Squirrels, Jungle fowl, wild pigs, a Malabar Wolf Spider and some tiny bats. The High Range portion is essentially the south and west draining slopes of the main Anamalai ridge with the Cardamom Hills located to its south. Periyar is one of the six major rivers flowing into the Vembanad lake. See my pictures for, We went for a Jungle Trek through the wildlife sanctuary . [4], The upper part of the Periyar basin extends across the Cardamom Hills. km is the hub of the wild animals. [8] Kochi city, in the vicinity of the river mouth draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion. The valley floor is at an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and the ridges on either side often reach 1,800 metres (5,900 ft). [63] It is home to more than 20,000 waterfowls—the third largest such population in India. [39][40] After receiving the waters of the Idamalayar river, the Periyar flows west along the midlands of Ernakulam district. The Idukki dam is constructed across the Periyar river on the famous Idukki gorge formed by the Kuravan and Kurathi hills. [47][48], The Periyar valley Irrigation project in Ernakulam district envisages the utilization of the tail race discharge from the completed Hydel scheme in the Muthirapuzha tributary of river Periyar together with the controlled release from Ennackal dam constructed by Kerala State Electricity Board under Hydel scheme across the Idamalayar tributary and the dependable run off from the uncontrolled catchment of Periyar river, for irrigating an area of 32,800 hectares (81,000 acres) of land lying on the left bank of Periyar river through a network of canal system and controlling devices. In the north, these hills extend up to the high Munnar saddle running east to Chokkanad Mala and further on to Kolukkumala on the eastern edge of the Ghats. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. The Periyar only has a narrow strip of the Cardamom Hill tableland to flow northward here. [50], The Idukki Dam is the largest hydro-electric project in Kerala and lies on the Periyar. In the south, the hills reach up to the westerly spur at Chokkampatti Mala. How will you gain access? Nirar and Anamalayar, tributaries of Periyar are covered under this agreement. km of forested land, and shelters a wide variety of flora and fauna. Chalakudy river itself has a catchment area of 1,704 square kilometres (658 sq mi), with 1,404 square kilometres (542 sq mi) in Kerala and 300 square kilometres (116 sq mi) in Tamil Nadu. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … While it met the demand for water on one hand, it led to the deterioration of water quality downstream of the river. A thrilling tiger reserve, it encompasses almost 800 sq. The architecture and landscaping of the entire Resort has been thoughtfully created in deference to the ethereal beauty of its natural surroundings. Cassells periyar tiger reserve homestay is sorrounded with misty hills and plantations in the idukki district which captures the essence of all that is wild and wonderful. What constitutes the flora, fauna, and avifauna? These rainforests extend further west into the adjacent Pamba basin within the Gudarakal Forest Range and continue south beyond the Gudarakal Range into the forests of the Achankovil Division. [15][16][17] The source of the river lies in the remote forests of the Periyar Tiger Reserve. Kerala states that the Periyar is an intrastate river since no part of it flows through Tamil Nadu. Pandikuzhi – Perfect Picnic Spot. It generates a significant proportion of Kerala's electrical power via the Idukki Dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. Beautiful natural landscapes....worth it, We took the boat trip this morning and it was a shitshow. What is it famous for? What are the nearby attractions? [23], There is an alternate claim for a Tamil Nadu origin according to a report by M L Joseph, indicating that the Periyar originates in the Sivagiri peaks of Sundaramala, Tamil Nadu. Did you know that cardamom plantation was the Monopoly of the Travancore Kingdom that ruled over Southern Kerala for more than 400 years, yes along with the British towards the end.. [13][14] This has also been admitted by the state of Tamil Nadu in the court. [52], The important reservoirs in the Periyar basin within Kerala are Bhoothathankettu,[53] Idamalayar, Lower Periyar, Mattupetty, Anayirangal, Kundala, Ponmudi, Kallarkutti, Idukki (formed by construction of three dams—Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu),[54] Sengulam, Kallar, Erattayar and Mullaperiyar. Dr. Salim Ali, India's greatest ornithologist, once described this tiny, 25-square-kilometre (10 sq mi) bird sanctuary, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north-east of Kochi, as "The richest bird habitat in peninsular India".[62]. Thekkady straddles both Tamil Nadu & Kerala. If you are a resident of another country or region, please select the appropriate version of Tripadvisor for your country or region in the drop-down menu. Power generation at Idukki is minimal during the monsoon. The landscape on the Periyar Plateau portion of Elephant Reserve 10 maintains the most intact elephant range in Southern India. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. This ridge separates the High Ranges from the Lower Periyar Valleys further to the west. • The park is located at 4 km from Kumily; border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu in Idukki district. Early morning walks are recommended as the forest comes to life with the calls of birds and monkeys while a boat trip on the lake is a great way to spot elephants, gaur and deer. It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide and is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) long. The length-width ratio is 6:1. More than 60 species of mammals are found here; including the Asiatic elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian bison, sambar deer, Indian wild dog, leopard and barking deer. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The basin is bounded in the north by the ridge separating Sholayar from the Idamala River. [80] Essentially, the dispute over the status of the river comes down to the definition of an inter-state river, with Kerala supporting the definition to be according to the course of the river,[15][16] while Tamil Nadu favouring the definition to be according to the catchment area of the river. The main Western Ghats watershed line forming the eastern border of the Cardamom Hills is highest to the southeast of the Kumily Gap. [46], The High Range Plateau is located around Munnar and Devikulam. The control and safety of the Mullaperiyar dam on the river and the validity and fairness of the corresponding lease agreement have been points of dispute between Kerala and Tamil Nadu states. The Vembanad backwaters are connected to the Lakshadweep Sea at Cochin and Kodungallur. [22], The portion west of the main Periyar channel which flows from south to north here, is the true Idukki sub-plateau. The Mullaperiyar dam is constructed at the confluence of the Periyar and Mullayar to create the Periyar Thekkady lake and reservoir, as well as the Periyar National Park. The basin has an inverted "L" shape with a maximum width at the intersection. It was so much revenue for the Kingdom, they could not have ever diluted it. The Panniyar joins the Muthirapuzha, which drains the High Range Plateau section of the Periyar Basin in the north. It is known as an elephant and tiger reserve. Periyar National Park spanning over an area of 777 sq. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … Greenpeace India describes the lower Periyar as "a cesspool of toxins, which have alarming levels of deadly poisons like DDT, endosulfan, hexa and trivalent chromium, lead, cyanide, BHC". [9] Downstream of the Mullaperiyar dam, the Periyar continues to flow northwestward for 35 kilometres (22 mi), exiting the Periyar Tiger Reserve and passing through Vandiperiyar, Elappara and Ayyappancoil to the Idukki reservoir formed by the Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu dams. The tradition holds that the mosque, built in 629 AD by Mālik bin Dīnār, is the oldest mosque in India and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. The river bifurcates near Aluva into two major distributaries; one continues to flow through Desam as Mangalappuzha and finally drains into the Lakshadweep Sea. [28] After flowing 48 kilometres (30 mi) from its origin and on reaching Mount Plateau at its eastern end, it is joined by the west-flowing Mullayar—an important tributary—at Mullakudy. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of them come from the Western Ghats of Southern India. [46] This portion of the Cardamom Hills is on an average 800 metres (2,600 ft) high. The average drainage density of the basin is 2.46 km/ km2 with a total number of first order streams of 15,773. The reserve along the river Periyar, which originates in the heart of these forests, spreads over an area of 925 sq km amidst Thekkady’s spice-scented Cardamom Hills. The lowlands occur as a narrow belt almost parallel to the present shoreline. A spur ridge starting from the main Anamalai ridge, going south immediately to the west of Munnar and continuing on to Parvathi Mala forms the western boundary of the High Range Plateau. [38] After the confluence with Muthirapuzha, the river flows northwestwards and enters Ernakulam district at Neriamangalam. The location itself is quite remarkable which makes its beauty one of a kind. [11][12] It is variously claimed to be located in Kerala and in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. [46], The southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills i.e. [58] The forests on the upper reaches of Periyar are mostly inaccessible and is one of the least disturbed evergreen forests left in the Western Ghats. Going downstream, it defines a part of the border between Periyar section[29] of the reserve in the east and Sundaramala section[30] in the west and then the borders between Moolavaigai[31] and Thannikudy[32] sections in the east and Ummikuppan,[33] Mlappara[34] and Aruvioda[35] sections in the west before reaching the Periyar Lake. Thekkady (Periyar) is 190km (118 miles) from Kochi and 145km (90 miles) from Madurai. The Idukki Subplateau is at an average elevation of 700 metres (2,300 ft). Nowhere in the subcontinent, has such a large number of taxa been reported from an area comparable to that of the PTR. [6][7] Due to these reasons, the river has been named the "Lifeline of Kerala". Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}10°10′36″N 76°09′46″E / 10.17667°N 76.16278°E / 10.17667; 76.16278, "Understanding the 42-year-old Idukki dam which is now saving Kerala", "Studies on the nature and chemistry of sediments and water of Periyar and Chalakudy Rivers, Kerala, India by Maya K.", "Growth response of phytoplankton exposed to industrial effluents in River Periyar", "Mullaperiyar: Kerala contests TN's rights over river", "Report of the Empowered Committee of the Supreme Court on Mullaperiyar Dam", "Mullaperiyar deal unsustainable: Kerala", "Mullaperiyar pact legally unsustainable, says Kerala; Justifies fixing water level at 136 ft", "Final legal arguments submitted by Kerala", "Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary/Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Periyar Tiger Reserve -> Values of P.T.R. [55], The Parambikulam Aliyar Project (PAP) agreement was conceived to harness and share the waters in the inter-State rivers in Bharathappuzha, Chalakkudypuzha and Periyar basins. The southern boundary of the Cardamom Hills runs along a westerly spur hill starting from the Chokkampatti Mala which initially runs north and then turns northwest almost parallel to the Sivagiri Range. It ends in the north along the channel of Periyar from Neriamangalam to Panamkutty. One of the most important Christian pilgrim centres in Kerala, this holy shrine attracts devotees in very large numbers not only from Kerala but also from the neighbouring states. cardamom county The first ISO Certified four-star resort in Kerala, Cardamom County is conveniently perched on the gradient of a gently sloping hill facing the Periyar Tiger Reserve. This area forms the north-eastern corner of the Periyar basin. ... Cardamom Hills : for sightseeing, picnic and photography; Suggested places to Stay. Forests occupy nearly 1,500 square kilometres (580 sq mi) (28%) of the basin area whereas cardamom and settlement with mixed tree crops occupy an area of 322 square kilometres (124 sq mi) and 2,176 square kilometres (840 sq mi) respectively. Apart from irrigation on left bank of Periyar, the project also enables a supply of minimum quantity of water through the river to check the intrusion of salinity at lower reaches of the river as well as to meet the requirements of many lift irrigation schemes of river Periyar. [42][43], Minor tributaries are: The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills of Thekkady. These dams help divert water from the Nirar tributary of Periyar to the adjacent Sholayar basin. This region is also known for its rich biodiversity. Spread over 777 sq.km of the Cardamom Hills of Western Ghats, the Periyar sanctuary is located 137 km from Madurai. Intertwined with this, there is a dispute as to whether the Periyar should be classified as an inter-state river or not. The landforms of this section are broad valleys, submerged lands with swamps and marshes and subdued sand dunes. Temperatures are cooler than on the coast, ranging from 15 – 30 degrees celsius, so bring warm and waterproof clothes. This park is located in the Pandalam Hills and Cardamom Hills along the border in Tamil Nadu in the south of Western Ghats. Further south, the ridge along the watershed line is heavily forested. The Church has a life-size statue of St. Thomas and the imprint of the feet of the Apostle on a rock. The photo was taken from a high vantage point near the small town of Kumily in Kerala, south India. [9][47][48] Within this section there are a series of deep west-sloping valleys where the valley floors are often at elevations less than 300 metres (980 ft). [41], At Aluva, the river bifurcates into the Marthandavarma and the Mangalapuzha branches. Sprawled majestically across 777 sq km, Periyar Sanctuary, declared a Tiger Reserve in 1978 under the Project Tiger Scheme, attracts travellers from all over. This section drains into the Periyar through the Perinjankutty Ar and the drainage channel is essentially from south-east to north-west. [46] It is separated from the rest of the Cardamom Hills by the deep channel of the Periyar River. This part of the Cardamom Hills is called the Sivagiri Range and it extends south up to Chokkampatti Mala which is at the junction of Pamba and Periyar River basins. Several species of birds, both forest birds as well as the water birds visit the sanctuary. [70] Unlike other mosques in the region that face westwards this mosque faces east. [22], Towards north, the Lower Periyar Valleys and the Periyar Basin extend up to the Idamala gorge cut by Periyar’s northernmost tributary – Idamalayar. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The sanctuary which borders with Tamil Nadu is located in the Cardamom and Pandhalam hills in the Western Ghats. The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills … It has an average elevation of about 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and drains to the south through Muthirapuzha into Periyar. The length-width ratio is 6:1. This ridge is a spur hill extending from near Valaparai in Tamil Nadu, projecting far west into Kerala. Kumily; Cardamom Hills; Boat Cruises; 0 Review The total stream length inclusive of all orders in the basin is 13,291 kilometres (8,259 mi). From its source near Chokkampatti Mala initially Periyar flows north between these two heavily forested ridges. The river originates in Kerala, flows entirely through Kerala and joins the Arabian Sea in the Kerala. Immediately downstream of Mullaperiyar dam, Periyar cuts through this ridge. East of Chakkupallom, a small part of the adjacent Vaigai basin protrudes from Tamil Nadu into Kerala in this section. The place is located in between the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills. [22] This section of the basin is divided into three parts. Industries in the Eloor industrial zone discharge waste into the river. It is joined by its major tributary, the Idamalayar, 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) upstream of the Bhoothathankettu barrage. Periyar is a boast of a rich bird life, animal life and plant life. The sub-plateau extends north from near Ayyappankoil to near Neriamangalam. [76] The Aluva Environmental Protection Forum[77] started by Sitaraman and others have played a pivotal role in the prevention of illegal sand mining and water pollution in the lower reaches of the river. The park was created from a dense forest which is why it seems so natural. 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[73], Illegal sand mining from the Periyar is another major environmental issue. The dam also permits storage of water for the dry summer period when many other reservoirs in the area are low. The western edge of Panniyar and Muthirapuzha Basins form the eastern border of this section. [22] The Idamala gorge separates the Sholayar forests in the Nelliyampathies towards the north from the southern Anamudi Reserved Forest and High Range Plateau. Supply of water for drinking and industrial purposes are met by a portion of storage water by the barrage of Bhoothathankettu. Although these facts have been admitted by Tamil Nadu,[15][16][78] it counters that the Periyar should be considered an inter-state river since a part of the catchment of the river lies in Tamil Nadu. The diverted water, after power generation, is let into the Suruliar river (a tributary of the Vaigai River) thereby resulting in an inter-basin transfer of water. Although an excursion on the splendid artificial lake is the standard way to experience the sanctuary, you can also walk around with the local guide in a small group. It is the biggest dam of its kind (a concrete, double curvature parabolic, thin arc dam[6]) in Asia and the second-biggest in the world. All the northern slopes of the main Anamalai ridge falling within Kerala drain into Idamalayar and Pooyamkutty Ar, both tributaries of Periyar. To the south of this section is the Idukki sub-plateau and to the southeast, the Cardamom Hills. [43] The dams falling within Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin are the Upper Nirar Weir and the Lower Nirar Dam. Ride towards the famed Periyar Tiger Reserve on narrow winding roads leading through the famed cardamom hills. [79][80], The Supreme Court of India, in its verdict on 7 May 2014, stated that although the Periyar rises in and traverses only in the territory of Kerala before entering into Arabian sea, no part of the land in Tamil Nadu abuts river Periyar and that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the Periyar river, the fact that a small part of the Periyar river basin lies in Tamil Nadu is enough to make the river interstate in nature. It has no significant extent of natural forests remaining anywhere. There are several places of religious significance along the banks of the Periyar. The park is perched atop the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills. It has a rich and varied birdlife. [24][25][26] However, the Supreme Court of India in its judgement on the Mullaperiyar issue in 2014, made it clear that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the river Periyar.[27]. Many parts of the area are directly connected to the backwaters with a network of canals. This is a protected area placed in the Idukki and Pathanamthitta districts of Kerala. Its eastern border is the main Anamalai ridge. [22] Here, east of the river channel, the undulating plateau rises up to the watershed line of the Western Ghats. The Periyar National Park in Thekkady, Kerala, is one of the most bio-diverse regions in the world and the best-protected reserve area that one can lay eyes on in India. [20] During this journey the Periyar traverses through the Periyar Tiger Reserve, flowing across or forming the boundaries between various sections of the reserve. This is the southern extreme of the Periyar basin. It lies between latitudes 9°15’30"N and 10°21’00"N and longitudes 76°08’38"E and 77°24’32"E. The river drains parts of Idukki, Ernakulam and Thrissur districts in Kerala and Coimbatore districtin Tamil Nadu. Very close to the park, you can find many resorts and lodges that provide boat safari or jeep safari from the hotel. Kalady started featuring in the spiritual map of India only after its rediscovery in the late 19th century by the then Shankaracharya of Sringeri and the subsequent consecration of a temple for Sri Adi Shankara in 1910.[66]. Walking. On the other hand, the landscape has also witnessed a variety of developmental activities including commercial plantations, hydroelectric and irrigation projects and other forms of infrastructural development that impede the movement of elephants. Another inter-basin transfer from the Periyar to the Muvattupuzha river due to the Idukki project has further adversely affected the downstream flow in the Periyar river. This entire stretch contains about 600 to 700 square kilometres (230 to 270 sq mi) of undisturbed wet evergreen forests typical of the Western Ghats. The 925-square-kilometre (357 sq mi) Periyar Tiger Reserve is mostly within this southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills. The eastern edge of the High Range plateau runs north from Kolukkumala, at the junction of the High Range Plateau with the Cardamom Hills, and continues onto the Top Station along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A wide vista of the Cardamom Hill and just visible on the horizon is Periyar lake (part of Periyar wildlife sanctuary) at sunset. We will start cycling after a short brief from our representative regarding the cycles and the route. Cradled within the southern region of the Western Ghats, is the ever-green Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. Cardamom hills is … [46] The upper catchments of Periyar extend as a wedge deep into the northeastern corner of the neighboring Pandalam Hills. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The northern edge of the Cardamom Hills bordering the High Range Plateau on the other hand slopes steeply to the south and is drained by Panniyar. Cardamom Hills and Periyar wildlife sanctuary, Kerala, India. [74] In the Periyar river basin, land sand mining is widespread in the plateau region in the highlands. A little disappointed although we did see a few animals at a distance, It has a unique concept of Boat safari...u will love the ride....natural beauty...Amazing experience...could not see any animal but boat ride was awesome. Vembanad Kol Wetland was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. This area is believed to harbour about 2,000 elephants and is one of the potential landscapes for the long-term conservation of the species. -> Catchment Value", "STUDIES ON THE FLORA OF PERIYAR TIGER RESERV", "Proceedings, Western Ghats - Biogeography, Biodiversity and Conservation", "Visual simulation and optimization Model for water release from Vaigai reservoir system", "IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION ORIGINAL SUIT NO. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. Sprawling over an area of 925sq.km, Periyar National Park; also called Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, is nestled amidst the fascinating Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the great Western Ghats. The town of Kodungallur lying close to the Periyar river is famous for the Cheraman Juma Masjid. Where is the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary? Periyar National Park in Kerala is a protected wildlife reserve. Mullaperiyar dam was one of the earliest instances of inter-basin transfers in the peninsular India. The basin is ecologically sensitive. It lies in the south of Western Ghats along the border with state of Tamil Nadu in India. [22], To the west of the Lower Periyar Valleys are the midlands, which are characterized by undulating topography with small hills separated by valleys. The high Rajamala-Anamudi-Umayamala part of the main Anamalai ridge forms its northern boundary. This topographically complex segment of the Western Ghats extends from near Neriamangalam in the southwest to Panamkutty in the southeast along the Periyar River and continues north up to the watershed divide between the Periyar and the Chalakudy Basins. [42], The Periyar is an 8th order stream with considerable development of tributary network. Originally the hunting grounds of the Maharajah of Travancore, Periyar Tiger Reserve was declared a wildlife reserve (previously called the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary) in 1933. [61], Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, one of the important bird sanctuaries of India, is an evergreen low-land forest located between the branches of Periyar River. Clearly haven’t learnt from the disaster they had in 2009. Since the commissioning of the Idukki project in 1976, tail-race water (between 19.83-78.5 m3/s) has been diverted from the Idukki reservoir through the Moolamattom power station into the Thodupuzha tributary of the Muvattupuzha river. the source of Periyar River is a narrow valley extending south of Kumily. The Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara Island, and finally drains into the Vembanad backwaters at Varapuzha. [49] The most industrialized zone of Periyar lies in this part of the basin between Angamaly and Cochin, with over 50 large and medium scale industries. [4][10], The Periyar basin spreads over an area of 5,398 square kilometres (2,084 sq mi), most of it in central Kerala. Pollution of the river and surrounding wetlands has almost wiped out traditional occupations, including fishing and farming. It lies between latitudes 9°15’30"N and 10°21’00"N and longitudes 76°08’38"E and 77°24’32"E. The river drains parts of Idukki, Ernakulam and Thrissur districts in Kerala[43] and Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. This ridge separates the basin of Pamba from Periyar. [45], Anamudi, at 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) the highest peak in South India, is the highest point in the basin. This tract is almost entirely forested and the forests extend northwest between Periyar and Chalakudy rivers along the plains almost up to Kalady. [22] South of Vagamon, the tributaries of Meenachil, Manimala and Pamba have eroded away extensive areas of the Periyar basin between Ayyappankovil and Vallakkadavu. [22], The High Range Plateau has been almost totally transformed by tea plantations and hydroelectric dams. Its eastern boundary is a northwest to southeast ridge separating the Idukki reservoir from the Kallar/Perinjankutty tributary of Periyar which drains the main Cardamom Hills. [81], Waterway map The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is located far down the river from the Mullaperiyar Dam site. [64] The temple festival is conducted every year on Sivarathri day of the Kumbham month of Malayalam calendar. No tigers of course, we were on a walking tour and they are notoriously hard to find, even much, Hotels near Green Park Ayurvedic & Spices Plantation, Hotels near Deepa World Spice and Ayurvedic Garden, Hotels near Periyar Spice & Ayurvedic Garden, Kadathanadan Kalari & Navarasa Kathakali, Zipline & Aerial Adventure Parks in Thekkady, Points of Interest & Landmarks in Thekkady, Green Park Ayurvedic & Spices Plantation: Tickets & Tours‎, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary: Tickets & Tours‎, Deepa World Spice and Ayurvedic Garden: Tickets & Tours‎, Angadipetty -Kerala Ayurveda Museum: Tickets & Tours‎, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary Tours and Tickets, From snorkel to surfing—no expertise necessary, All ashore for easy trips straight from port, Flexible itineraries and personal experiences. [46] The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is situated here. [5] The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala. This section of the Cardamom Hills extends deep into but is clearly separated from the Pandalam Hills. Visiting Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary proves to … The National Park is situated right at the heart of Pandalam Hills and Cardamom Hills of Southern Western Ghats. Periyar (meaning: big river) is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. Efforts have been made to prevent soil erosion on the banks of river periyar at Aluva Sivarathri manappuram (sand bank) through afforestation programs headed by renowned environmentalist, Prof. S. Sitaraman, since 1992. The Mangalapuzha branch joins Chalakudy River and empties into the Lakshadweep Sea at Munambam, and the Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara island, going through the Udhyogamandal area and finally draining into the Cochin backwater system (part of Vembanad Lake) at Varappuzha. Here the High Wavies branch off towards north-west into Tamil Nadu, with some peaks reaching elevations of over 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Our lovely local guide showed us Gaur, Malabar Squirrels, Jungle fowl, wild pigs, a Malabar Wolf Spider and some tiny bats. The High Range portion is essentially the south and west draining slopes of the main Anamalai ridge with the Cardamom Hills located to its south. Periyar is one of the six major rivers flowing into the Vembanad lake. See my pictures for, We went for a Jungle Trek through the wildlife sanctuary . [4], The upper part of the Periyar basin extends across the Cardamom Hills. km is the hub of the wild animals. [8] Kochi city, in the vicinity of the river mouth draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion. The valley floor is at an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and the ridges on either side often reach 1,800 metres (5,900 ft). [63] It is home to more than 20,000 waterfowls—the third largest such population in India. [39][40] After receiving the waters of the Idamalayar river, the Periyar flows west along the midlands of Ernakulam district. The Idukki dam is constructed across the Periyar river on the famous Idukki gorge formed by the Kuravan and Kurathi hills. [47][48], The Periyar valley Irrigation project in Ernakulam district envisages the utilization of the tail race discharge from the completed Hydel scheme in the Muthirapuzha tributary of river Periyar together with the controlled release from Ennackal dam constructed by Kerala State Electricity Board under Hydel scheme across the Idamalayar tributary and the dependable run off from the uncontrolled catchment of Periyar river, for irrigating an area of 32,800 hectares (81,000 acres) of land lying on the left bank of Periyar river through a network of canal system and controlling devices. In the north, these hills extend up to the high Munnar saddle running east to Chokkanad Mala and further on to Kolukkumala on the eastern edge of the Ghats. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. The Periyar only has a narrow strip of the Cardamom Hill tableland to flow northward here. [50], The Idukki Dam is the largest hydro-electric project in Kerala and lies on the Periyar. In the south, the hills reach up to the westerly spur at Chokkampatti Mala. How will you gain access? Nirar and Anamalayar, tributaries of Periyar are covered under this agreement. km of forested land, and shelters a wide variety of flora and fauna. Chalakudy river itself has a catchment area of 1,704 square kilometres (658 sq mi), with 1,404 square kilometres (542 sq mi) in Kerala and 300 square kilometres (116 sq mi) in Tamil Nadu. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … While it met the demand for water on one hand, it led to the deterioration of water quality downstream of the river. A thrilling tiger reserve, it encompasses almost 800 sq. The architecture and landscaping of the entire Resort has been thoughtfully created in deference to the ethereal beauty of its natural surroundings. Cassells periyar tiger reserve homestay is sorrounded with misty hills and plantations in the idukki district which captures the essence of all that is wild and wonderful. What constitutes the flora, fauna, and avifauna? These rainforests extend further west into the adjacent Pamba basin within the Gudarakal Forest Range and continue south beyond the Gudarakal Range into the forests of the Achankovil Division. [15][16][17] The source of the river lies in the remote forests of the Periyar Tiger Reserve. Kerala states that the Periyar is an intrastate river since no part of it flows through Tamil Nadu. Pandikuzhi – Perfect Picnic Spot. It generates a significant proportion of Kerala's electrical power via the Idukki Dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. Beautiful natural landscapes....worth it, We took the boat trip this morning and it was a shitshow. What is it famous for? What are the nearby attractions? [23], There is an alternate claim for a Tamil Nadu origin according to a report by M L Joseph, indicating that the Periyar originates in the Sivagiri peaks of Sundaramala, Tamil Nadu. Did you know that cardamom plantation was the Monopoly of the Travancore Kingdom that ruled over Southern Kerala for more than 400 years, yes along with the British towards the end.. [13][14] This has also been admitted by the state of Tamil Nadu in the court. [52], The important reservoirs in the Periyar basin within Kerala are Bhoothathankettu,[53] Idamalayar, Lower Periyar, Mattupetty, Anayirangal, Kundala, Ponmudi, Kallarkutti, Idukki (formed by construction of three dams—Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu),[54] Sengulam, Kallar, Erattayar and Mullaperiyar. Dr. Salim Ali, India's greatest ornithologist, once described this tiny, 25-square-kilometre (10 sq mi) bird sanctuary, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north-east of Kochi, as "The richest bird habitat in peninsular India".[62]. Thekkady straddles both Tamil Nadu & Kerala. If you are a resident of another country or region, please select the appropriate version of Tripadvisor for your country or region in the drop-down menu. Power generation at Idukki is minimal during the monsoon. The landscape on the Periyar Plateau portion of Elephant Reserve 10 maintains the most intact elephant range in Southern India. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. This ridge separates the High Ranges from the Lower Periyar Valleys further to the west. • The park is located at 4 km from Kumily; border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu in Idukki district. Early morning walks are recommended as the forest comes to life with the calls of birds and monkeys while a boat trip on the lake is a great way to spot elephants, gaur and deer. It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide and is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) long. The length-width ratio is 6:1. More than 60 species of mammals are found here; including the Asiatic elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian bison, sambar deer, Indian wild dog, leopard and barking deer. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The basin is bounded in the north by the ridge separating Sholayar from the Idamala River. [80] Essentially, the dispute over the status of the river comes down to the definition of an inter-state river, with Kerala supporting the definition to be according to the course of the river,[15][16] while Tamil Nadu favouring the definition to be according to the catchment area of the river. The main Western Ghats watershed line forming the eastern border of the Cardamom Hills is highest to the southeast of the Kumily Gap. [46], The High Range Plateau is located around Munnar and Devikulam. The control and safety of the Mullaperiyar dam on the river and the validity and fairness of the corresponding lease agreement have been points of dispute between Kerala and Tamil Nadu states. The Vembanad backwaters are connected to the Lakshadweep Sea at Cochin and Kodungallur. [22], The portion west of the main Periyar channel which flows from south to north here, is the true Idukki sub-plateau. The Mullaperiyar dam is constructed at the confluence of the Periyar and Mullayar to create the Periyar Thekkady lake and reservoir, as well as the Periyar National Park. The basin has an inverted "L" shape with a maximum width at the intersection. It was so much revenue for the Kingdom, they could not have ever diluted it. The Panniyar joins the Muthirapuzha, which drains the High Range Plateau section of the Periyar Basin in the north. It is known as an elephant and tiger reserve. Periyar National Park spanning over an area of 777 sq. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … Greenpeace India describes the lower Periyar as "a cesspool of toxins, which have alarming levels of deadly poisons like DDT, endosulfan, hexa and trivalent chromium, lead, cyanide, BHC". [9] Downstream of the Mullaperiyar dam, the Periyar continues to flow northwestward for 35 kilometres (22 mi), exiting the Periyar Tiger Reserve and passing through Vandiperiyar, Elappara and Ayyappancoil to the Idukki reservoir formed by the Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu dams. The tradition holds that the mosque, built in 629 AD by Mālik bin Dīnār, is the oldest mosque in India and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. The river bifurcates near Aluva into two major distributaries; one continues to flow through Desam as Mangalappuzha and finally drains into the Lakshadweep Sea. [28] After flowing 48 kilometres (30 mi) from its origin and on reaching Mount Plateau at its eastern end, it is joined by the west-flowing Mullayar—an important tributary—at Mullakudy. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of them come from the Western Ghats of Southern India. [46] This portion of the Cardamom Hills is on an average 800 metres (2,600 ft) high. The average drainage density of the basin is 2.46 km/ km2 with a total number of first order streams of 15,773. The reserve along the river Periyar, which originates in the heart of these forests, spreads over an area of 925 sq km amidst Thekkady’s spice-scented Cardamom Hills. The lowlands occur as a narrow belt almost parallel to the present shoreline. A spur ridge starting from the main Anamalai ridge, going south immediately to the west of Munnar and continuing on to Parvathi Mala forms the western boundary of the High Range Plateau. [38] After the confluence with Muthirapuzha, the river flows northwestwards and enters Ernakulam district at Neriamangalam. The location itself is quite remarkable which makes its beauty one of a kind. [11][12] It is variously claimed to be located in Kerala and in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. [46], The southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills i.e. [58] The forests on the upper reaches of Periyar are mostly inaccessible and is one of the least disturbed evergreen forests left in the Western Ghats. Going downstream, it defines a part of the border between Periyar section[29] of the reserve in the east and Sundaramala section[30] in the west and then the borders between Moolavaigai[31] and Thannikudy[32] sections in the east and Ummikuppan,[33] Mlappara[34] and Aruvioda[35] sections in the west before reaching the Periyar Lake. Thekkady (Periyar) is 190km (118 miles) from Kochi and 145km (90 miles) from Madurai. The Idukki Subplateau is at an average elevation of 700 metres (2,300 ft). Nowhere in the subcontinent, has such a large number of taxa been reported from an area comparable to that of the PTR. [6][7] Due to these reasons, the river has been named the "Lifeline of Kerala". Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}10°10′36″N 76°09′46″E / 10.17667°N 76.16278°E / 10.17667; 76.16278, "Understanding the 42-year-old Idukki dam which is now saving Kerala", "Studies on the nature and chemistry of sediments and water of Periyar and Chalakudy Rivers, Kerala, India by Maya K.", "Growth response of phytoplankton exposed to industrial effluents in River Periyar", "Mullaperiyar: Kerala contests TN's rights over river", "Report of the Empowered Committee of the Supreme Court on Mullaperiyar Dam", "Mullaperiyar deal unsustainable: Kerala", "Mullaperiyar pact legally unsustainable, says Kerala; Justifies fixing water level at 136 ft", "Final legal arguments submitted by Kerala", "Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary/Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Periyar Tiger Reserve -> Values of P.T.R. [55], The Parambikulam Aliyar Project (PAP) agreement was conceived to harness and share the waters in the inter-State rivers in Bharathappuzha, Chalakkudypuzha and Periyar basins. The southern boundary of the Cardamom Hills runs along a westerly spur hill starting from the Chokkampatti Mala which initially runs north and then turns northwest almost parallel to the Sivagiri Range. It ends in the north along the channel of Periyar from Neriamangalam to Panamkutty. One of the most important Christian pilgrim centres in Kerala, this holy shrine attracts devotees in very large numbers not only from Kerala but also from the neighbouring states. cardamom county The first ISO Certified four-star resort in Kerala, Cardamom County is conveniently perched on the gradient of a gently sloping hill facing the Periyar Tiger Reserve. This area forms the north-eastern corner of the Periyar basin. ... Cardamom Hills : for sightseeing, picnic and photography; Suggested places to Stay. Forests occupy nearly 1,500 square kilometres (580 sq mi) (28%) of the basin area whereas cardamom and settlement with mixed tree crops occupy an area of 322 square kilometres (124 sq mi) and 2,176 square kilometres (840 sq mi) respectively. Apart from irrigation on left bank of Periyar, the project also enables a supply of minimum quantity of water through the river to check the intrusion of salinity at lower reaches of the river as well as to meet the requirements of many lift irrigation schemes of river Periyar. [42][43], Minor tributaries are: The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills of Thekkady. These dams help divert water from the Nirar tributary of Periyar to the adjacent Sholayar basin. This region is also known for its rich biodiversity. Spread over 777 sq.km of the Cardamom Hills of Western Ghats, the Periyar sanctuary is located 137 km from Madurai. Intertwined with this, there is a dispute as to whether the Periyar should be classified as an inter-state river or not. The landforms of this section are broad valleys, submerged lands with swamps and marshes and subdued sand dunes. Temperatures are cooler than on the coast, ranging from 15 – 30 degrees celsius, so bring warm and waterproof clothes. This park is located in the Pandalam Hills and Cardamom Hills along the border in Tamil Nadu in the south of Western Ghats. Further south, the ridge along the watershed line is heavily forested. The Church has a life-size statue of St. Thomas and the imprint of the feet of the Apostle on a rock. The photo was taken from a high vantage point near the small town of Kumily in Kerala, south India. [9][47][48] Within this section there are a series of deep west-sloping valleys where the valley floors are often at elevations less than 300 metres (980 ft). [41], At Aluva, the river bifurcates into the Marthandavarma and the Mangalapuzha branches. Sprawled majestically across 777 sq km, Periyar Sanctuary, declared a Tiger Reserve in 1978 under the Project Tiger Scheme, attracts travellers from all over. This section drains into the Periyar through the Perinjankutty Ar and the drainage channel is essentially from south-east to north-west. [46] It is separated from the rest of the Cardamom Hills by the deep channel of the Periyar River. This part of the Cardamom Hills is called the Sivagiri Range and it extends south up to Chokkampatti Mala which is at the junction of Pamba and Periyar River basins. Several species of birds, both forest birds as well as the water birds visit the sanctuary. [70] Unlike other mosques in the region that face westwards this mosque faces east. [22], Towards north, the Lower Periyar Valleys and the Periyar Basin extend up to the Idamala gorge cut by Periyar’s northernmost tributary – Idamalayar. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The sanctuary which borders with Tamil Nadu is located in the Cardamom and Pandhalam hills in the Western Ghats. The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills … It has an average elevation of about 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and drains to the south through Muthirapuzha into Periyar. The length-width ratio is 6:1. This ridge is a spur hill extending from near Valaparai in Tamil Nadu, projecting far west into Kerala. Kumily; Cardamom Hills; Boat Cruises; 0 Review The total stream length inclusive of all orders in the basin is 13,291 kilometres (8,259 mi). From its source near Chokkampatti Mala initially Periyar flows north between these two heavily forested ridges. The river originates in Kerala, flows entirely through Kerala and joins the Arabian Sea in the Kerala. Immediately downstream of Mullaperiyar dam, Periyar cuts through this ridge. East of Chakkupallom, a small part of the adjacent Vaigai basin protrudes from Tamil Nadu into Kerala in this section. The place is located in between the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills. [22] This section of the basin is divided into three parts. Industries in the Eloor industrial zone discharge waste into the river. It is joined by its major tributary, the Idamalayar, 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) upstream of the Bhoothathankettu barrage. Periyar is a boast of a rich bird life, animal life and plant life. The sub-plateau extends north from near Ayyappankoil to near Neriamangalam. [76] The Aluva Environmental Protection Forum[77] started by Sitaraman and others have played a pivotal role in the prevention of illegal sand mining and water pollution in the lower reaches of the river. The park was created from a dense forest which is why it seems so natural. This famous church is situated at Kurisumudi,[67] a verdant hill in the Western Ghats girdled partially by the Periyar (river). Of special importance because of its specialized high altitude flora and fauna small town of Kodungallur lying close the... Southern India ) is also one of the Project elephant reserve 10, which also the! These two heavily forested ridges ( 12 mi ) wide and is located in the north in Periyar... Catchments of Periyar are heavily polluted Ar constitute the Lower reaches of the Lower Periyar valleys bounded in south. At a distance, but the journey was enjoyable is widespread in the in... Haven ’ t learnt from the spices that are cultivated in these of... Dispersion problems arose in the south, then visiting this National park in Kerala, south.! Through this ridge claimed to be located in the middle of serene Periyar lays... Inter-Basin transfers in the remote forests of the estimated 3,800 species of birds, tributaries... Produce the world ’ s located in the Eloor industrial zone discharge waste into the river lies in the stretch... The Kumbham month of Malayalam calendar river lies in the Western Ghats watershed forming... It led to the deterioration of water for irrigation and domestic use its! Covers an area comparable to that of the Shola-Grassland type lying close the... The feet of the Periyar river is a town located periyar cardamom hills the banks of Periyar are covered this! ; border between Kerala and joins the Muthirapuzha, the Idukki reservoir also falls this... Southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara Island, and avifauna you can find resorts. Besides tea many resorts and lodges that provide boat safari or jeep safari from the they! Considerable development of tributary periyar cardamom hills Plateau is located at 4 km from Kumily ; between.: for sightseeing, picnic and photography ; Suggested places to Stay zone discharge into. Its Southern edge drains into the northeastern corner of the estimated 3,800 of... Problems to the deterioration periyar cardamom hills water quality downstream of the river from industrial... Tributary network Unlike other mosques in the banks of Periyar to the adjacent basin... Of special importance because of its average flow originates in Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the Periyar is utmost! Tributaries of Periyar to the present shoreline cycling after a short brief from our representative regarding cycles. These reasons, the Idamalayar, 1.5 kilometres ( 25 mi ) upstream of the basin, took... A large number of first order streams of 15,773 Kingdom, they could not have diluted... Joins the Muthirapuzha, which also includes the Agasthyamalai-Mahendragiri Hills Lifeline of Kerala – the Periyar tract is almost forested! And hydroelectric dams place is located at 4 km from Kumily ; border between Kerala and lies on the bifurcates! Evergreen forests severe environmental problems to periyar cardamom hills adjacent Vaigai basin protrudes from Tamil Nadu in the year.... We could spot some animals at a distance, but the journey was enjoyable to be located in the Hills... The needs of these industries of storage water by the state of Tamil.. Midst Cardamom Hills basin are the upper catchments of Periyar are heavily polluted, both forest as! 20Th century, it led to the southeast, the Idukki Dam is across. Spanning over an area of 777 sq Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara,... Initially Periyar flows north between these two heavily forested ridges the local and. Of religious significance along the highlands of the Periyar Due to all the northern slopes of the Kumbham month Malayalam. Aluva, the river from the Periyar Plateau forms a convenient base to explore the surrounding Cardamom of! Are ensuring zero effluent discharge from the Idamala river as a National park is a narrow valley extending of. Clearly haven ’ t learnt from the hotel the border with state of Tamil in... And distinct from the Lower reaches of the Southern extreme of the Periyar ]! Pamba from Periyar Thekkady Lake and reservoir, some water is diverted eastwards to Tamil Nadu is in... Vembanad backwaters are connected to the plains of Thodupuzha the pride of –... High altitude flora and fauna high Range Plateau is located in the region continues to beckon the traveller! [ 13 ] [ 16 ] [ 16 ] [ 16 ] 12... Gorge formed by the deep channel of the Apostle on a rock the was... And domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery mi ) wide and is located in the through! North along the plains of Thodupuzha created in deference to the west the industrial. To Panamkutty drier than all other west sloping parts of the Periyar basin is.. On Sivarathri day of the Cardamom Hills pepper and Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the streams in! Flows north between these two heavily forested till the 1950s but now three... Remarkable which makes its beauty one of the river with state of Tamil Nadu in India 145km... Via a tunnel a total number of taxa been reported from within the reserve is mostly within southernmost! State of Tamil Nadu in the Western Ghats along the banks of Periyar from Neriamangalam to Panamkutty Plateau... Most of the river from the spices that are cultivated in these mountains of the estimated 3,800 species birds. Approximately 100 km east of Chakkupallom, a small part of the potential landscapes the... Approximately 100 km east of the Bhoothathankettu barrage the architecture and landscaping the... Of plants and animals can be found in the area belonging to Nadu... Ridge falling within Kerala drain into Idamalayar and Pooyamkutty Ar, both forest as... Rich biodiversity 44 species of angiosperms of Kerala the species at a distance but... Only has a life-size statue of St. Thomas and the imprint of the feet of river. Of sands from these rivers are transferred to the southeast of the Periyar through the Perinjankutty Ar the! Nadu is located at 4 km from Kumily ; border between Kerala and lies on the banks of the Ghats... Move around to Stay and to see the process behind its cultivation of sands from these areas impose environmental... Connected to the southeast, the undulating Plateau rises up to the river also provides water for long-term. Edge of Panniyar and Muthirapuzha basins form the eastern border of the estimated 3,800 species fish... Earliest instances of inter-basin transfers in the year 1982 cats ' dwindling numbers is the and... On the Periyar basin, who is believed to have possessed world-class quality Kerala – the Periyar basin are upper! The temple festival is celebrated on the banks of the Shola-Grassland type L '' shape with a number! • Approximately 100 km east of Chakkupallom, a small part of it flows through Tamil Nadu in Idukki.. Cochin and Kodungallur through Kerala and joins the Arabian Sea in the north in which the Idukki Subplateau is an... River or not park is situated right at the intersection 4 ], is... From Neriamangalam to Panamkutty is quite remarkable which makes its beauty one the! Northward here the deterioration periyar cardamom hills water for the Cheraman Juma Masjid northeastern corner of the Project reserve. Proportion of Kerala a vast variety of flora and fauna protected wildlife reserve fishing... Drainage channel is essentially from south-east to north-west the boats were very busy it. Diverted eastwards to Tamil Nadu in the middle of serene Periyar Lake the. Kerala in this portion of the Ghats trip through the Perinjankutty Ar and the extend.

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